Susan B. Anthony Fined for Voting, 1873
|Susan B. Anthony in 1870|
The Fourteenth Amendment had been adopted in 1868. The amendment states that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." All such citizens were guaranteed the rights and privileges which belonged to them. Anthony thought that meant her, too.
And so, on November 1, 1872, Anthony and her three sisters went to the local barbershop where the voter registration office was located. The young men acting as registrars didn't know quite what to do. At first they refused to register the Anthony sisters. But Anthony insisted, citing the Amendment, and threatened to bring criminal charges against them if they refused. That was probably the clincher.
After about an hour's discussion, and under the advice of the Supervisor of Elections, the registrars allowed the women to register. In fact, 14 women registered that day, a fact that led some citizens to call for the arrest of the voting officials.
When Election Day arrived on November 5th, Anthony and seven other women were present to vote. The officials had to discuss whether or not they should accept Anthony's ballot, but ultimately they accepted it. They were acutely conscious of the fact that they could get into trouble either way. Anthony voted a straight Republican ticket.
A poll watcher (and Democrat) named Sylvester Lewis filed a complaint against Anthony, charging her with voting illegally. William Storrs, United States Commissioner acted on the complaint and filed a warrant for Anthony's arrest on November 14th. The crime carried a maximum penalty of $500 or five years in prison.
Four days later, Anthony was arrested. She refused to enter a plea at the time she was arrested, and appeared at a preliminary examination on November 29th. Her lawyer did his best to present the argument that Anthony believed that she was acting legally when she voted.
Anthony regarded her arrest as an unexpected windfall. She had never expected to be arrested -- she had thought that her Election Day actions would result in giving her the opportunity to charge the voting inspectors of wrongdoing. She began making plans to have her lawyer apply for a Writ of Habeas Corpus. Her greatest hope was that it would get all the way to the Supreme Court.
The Writ was denied by U.S. District Judge Nathan Hall, who also increased Anthony's bail to $1000. She refused to pay that, also, but her lawyer, Henry Selden, paid it for her. It was a great disappointment for Anthony.
|Former President Fillmore attended the trial.|
The defense gave a three hour speech, which was followed by the prosecutor's two hour rebuttal. At that point, Judge Hunt took a piece of paper out of his pocket, and read his opinion on the case to the court -- an opinion that he had apparently written before hearing arguments. He then directed the jury to find her guilty.
|Judge Hunt wrote his opinion beforehand.|
In short, her arguments were basically a rehash of what her attorney had presented the day before: that she was being discriminated against for being a woman, that she had not appeared in front of a jury of her peers, but rather of her (legal) superiors, and that she had not even been allowed to be judged by them. The judge ordered her to desist her arguments several times, but Anthony just kept on going.
When she was finally finished, the judge pronounced sentence. She was fined $100 plus the cost of the prosecution. She insisted that she would never pay a penny of the fine, and she was true to her word. The U.S. Government never took any measures to collect, either.
James Montgomery Flagg Born, 1877
|Flagg was his own model.|
In 1917, Flagg created a recruiting poster for the U.S. Army. The illustration is of Uncle Sam pointing directly at the viewer. The caption reads, "I Want YOU for the U. S. Army." Over four million copies of the poster were printed during World War I. Later, it was used again during World War II.
|The British version came first.|
The face that Flagg used for Uncle Sam was his own, somewhat aged, and with the addition of a goatee. He said later that it was easier than going to the bother of finding a model.